Korean Notes (in French and English)

(Almost) full credits to Richard Levine, my very good polyglot friend

CONJUGATION IN ~요!

REGULAR VERBS

RULE !!

TAKE OUT ~다
and add -아요 if the last vowel is ㅏ or ㅗ,
add -어요 otherwise.

EXAMPLES :

~어요

있다 => 있어요 to have/exist
없다 => 없어요 to not have/not exist
읽다 => 읽어요 to read
죽다 => 죽어요 to die
싫다 => 싫어요 to be displeasing
먹다 => 먹어요 to eat
들다 => 들어요 to enter

~아요

맞다 => 맞아요 to be correct
오다 => 와요 to come
찾다 => 찾아요 to look for/to find
놀다 => 놀아요 to play
보다 => 봐요 to see
************************************************************
When the verb ends in ㅡ다,
add ㅓ요/ㅏ요 depending on the vowel preceeding ㅡ,
if there is no vowel before ㅡ, conjugate in ~ㅓ요

EXAMPLES:

나쁘다 => 나빠요 to be bad
기쁘다 => 기뻐요 to be happy
크다 => 커요 to be big/tall
예쁘다 => 예뻐요 to be pretty

***********************
Exception ** Unique verb **
하다
하다 => 하여요 => 하 ㅕ요 => 해요
*************************

Irregular verbs in ~ㅎ다

Rule : take out ㅎ and replace it byㅐ(when ㅏ or ㅓ) and ㅒ (when ㅑ or ㅕ)

List of verbs that FOLLOW the rule :

빨갛다 => 빨개요 to be red
하얗다 => 하얘요 to be white
그렇다/이렇다/저렇다 => 그래요/이래요/저래요 to be like this/like that
파랗다 => 파래요 to be blue
어떻다 => 어때요 to be how
노랗다 => 노래요 to be yellow
까맣다 => 까매요 to be black

Exceptions :

좋다 => 좋아요 to be good
놓다 => 놓아요 to let go
넣다 => 넣어요 to put
낳다 => 낳아요 to give birth

Irregular verbs in ~르다

Rule : add an additional ㄹ to the syllab preceeding 르, then conjugate in ㅏ or ㅓ depending on the vowel preceding ㅡ

List of verbs that FOLLOW the rule :

부르다 => 불러요 to call
고르다 => 골라요 to choose
흐르다 => 흘러요 to flow
빠르다 => 빨라요 to be fast
서두르다 => 서둘러요 to hurry up
오르다 => 올라요 to go up
누르다 => 눌러요 to push
다르다 => 달라요 to be different
머무르다 => 머물러요 to stay
서투르다 => 서툴러요 to be clumsy

Exceptions :

따르다 => 따라요 to follow

Irregular verbs in ~ㄷ다

Rule : replace ㄷ by ㄹ when you conjugate

Liste of verbs that FOLLOW the rule :

걷다 => 걸어요 to walk
묻다 => 물어요 to ask
듣다 => 들어요 to hear, to listen

Exceptions :

받다 => 받아요 to receive
닫다 => 닫아요 to close
묻다 => 묻어요 to bury
믿다 => 믿어요 to believe

Irregular verbs in ~ㅂ다

Rule : the ㅂ falls, then add ~워요, or 와요 if the verb is in ㅗ

List of verbs that FOLLOW the rule :

반갑다 => 반가워요 to be glad (used when you meet someone : “nice to meet you”)
고맙다 => 고마워요 to be thankful (thank you)
아름답다 => 아름다워요 to be beautiful
맵다 => 매워요 to be spicy
춥다 => 추워요 to be cold (weather)
덥다 => 더워요 to be hot (weather)
돕다 => 도와요 to help
가볍다 => 가벼워요 to be light
무겁다 => 무거워요 to be heavy
눕다 => 누워요 to lie down
귀엽다 => 귀여워요 to be cute

Exceptions :

잡다 => 잡아요 to catch
입다 => 입어요 to wear (clothes)
좁다 => 좁아요 to be narrow
접다 => 접어요 to bend
뽑다 => 뽑아요 to choose/select

Irregular verbs in ~ㅅ다

Rule : remove ㅅ when conjugating

List of verbs that FOLLOW the rule :

잇다 => 이어요 to link
빗다 => 비어요 to comb
짓다 => 지어요 to build
낫다 => 나아요 to be better

Exceptions :

벗다 => 벗어요 to put out / to remove (clothes/something that you wear)
웃다 => 웃어요 to laugh
씻다 => 씻어요 to wash

Miscellaneous Vocabularies

무덤 pour la tombe, l’equivalent en coreen de ”mo” 묘 ne s’utilise que dans des mots composes,
comme 묘지 (cimetiere)

Grew up

=> grew up, on dit bel et bien 자라다 => 자랐어요, comme je l’avais pense.

~ㄴ지 알다/모르다 (savoir / ne pas savoir)

몇 시인지 몰라요

=> 몇 신지 몰라요 Je ne sais pas quelle heure il est

**************
누구인지 몰라요
=> 누군지 몰라요 Je ne sais pas qui c’est

***************

무슨 뜻인지 알아요? Tu sais ce que ca veut dire ?
=> mot-a-mot: quel sens-c’est tu sais?

****************

벤선은 어디에 갔는지 몰라요
Je ne sais pas où Benson est allé.

****************
벤선 어디인지 알아요?
=> 벤선 어딘지 알아요?
Tu sais où est Benson?

****************

숫자 (numbers)

Kor 하나 / 둘 / 셋 / 넷 / 다섯 / 여섯 / 일곱 / 여덟 / 아홉 / 열

Chn 일 / 이 / 삼 / 사 / 오 / 육 / 칠 / 팔 / 구 / 십

Chiffres coréens:

Devant un nom, la dernière lettre tombe pour:

하나 => 한 / 둘 => 두 / 셋 => 세 / 넷 => 네

시간 (temps)

On utilise les chiffres coréens pour les heures et les sino-coréens pour les minutes.

Règles pour l’espacement:
normalement les noms suivant un chiffre doivent être espacés (한 명 etc).
Toutefois, en ce qui concerne les chiffres suivis d’heures ou de minutes, il est possible de les écrire tout attachés
(les deux orthographes sont acceptées au niveau officiel)

열한시 삼십오분 (11h35)

네시 이십분 (4h20)

한시 오십칠분 (1h57)

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